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Busting gender stereotypes at home and inculcating a sense of gender equality in your child are steps towards ending gender violence and discrimination in society. Read on to find out more
When I was eight years old, my best friends were twins - Neha and Nandu. Their mother expected Neha to help with kitchen work, including grinding rice and urad dal to make idli batter. Nandu was allowed to idle away his time, playing and having fun. Even at that young age, I would wonder, why this difference in treatment?
The other day, I spotted two greeting cards placed side by side in a shop. Both were meant for new parents. One proclaimed "Brilliant baby boy" while the other declared "Beautiful baby girl". Again, I wondered, why this difference?
In both instances, the difference is caused by the different ways in which we perceive the two genders or attribute characteristics to people based on their gender, or gender stereotypes. In such a scenario, it is important to know how to stop gender stereotyping at home.
What does being gender-sensitive entail?
Gender sensitivity is the ability to recognize issues and problems in the way societies look at gender. It is an understanding of discrimination and stereotyping based on gender. Teaching children to be gender-sensitive has a bearing on their development, their choices, and the kind of persons they grow up to become.
Just like other values, children mostly imbibe gender sensitivity from their parents. Research amply demonstrates that lack of gender sensitivity leads to gender discrimination and that there is a significant relationship between parental attitudes and this discrimination.
Gender discrimination affects students both academically and personally.
Sex and gender
Sex identifies the biological and physiological differences between men and women. The statement - 'Women can give birth to children while men can't' - relates to sex. On the other hand, gender concerns the culturally specific roles, behaviors, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate (and even desirable) for women and men. The statement - 'Boys are better at mathematics than girls' - relates to gender.
According to a training manual developed by UNESCO: "Gender sensitivity helps to generate respect for the individual regardless of gender. Gender sensitivity is not about pitting women against men. On the contrary, education that is gender-sensitive benefits members of both sexes. It helps them determine which assumptions in matters of gender are valid and which are stereotyped generalisations."
What does gender discrimination mean?
This is the act of treating a person, usually a woman, unfairly on the basis of gender. An example would be paying men and women differently for the same work.
What does gender equality mean?
This refers to giving equal rights and opportunities to women and men, girls and boys. For instance, in families, spending on the education of the girl child as well as the boy child, or having the same rules for children of both sexes.
What is the meaning of gender stereotypes?
Gender stereotypes are preconceived ideas whereby males and females are arbitrarily assigned characteristics and roles determined and limited by their sex. The statement "Men do nothing but watch sports!" is an example of gender stereotyping.
What does sexism mean?
Sexism is the view that members of one sex, usually women, are less intelligent or less capable than those of the other sex. Telling a joke depicting women as dumb and incompetent is an example of sexism.
What is gender-based violence?
This is physical, sexual or psychological harm inflicted usually on a woman or girl by men or male-dominated institutions. Examples of gender violence are eve teasing, rape and acid attacks.
Let children choose their own toys: To a young child, a doll is the same as a toy car - something to play with. It is when parents or friends gift a boy a science kit and a girl a kitchen set that gender-based conditioning comes into play. Parents should allow their children to play with toys of their choice. Also, they could buy more gender-neutral toys (toys not meant for a specific gender) like building blocks, musical toys, art supplies, and board games for their child. This is one of the first and foremost steps in creating a safe, gender-sensitive space for them.
Giving your child choices should extend to clothes and colors as well. Your child should be free to wear what she likes and decorate her room in a color of her choice. Of course, if your son wants to wear a skirt, you will have to warn him that he may be subjected to ridicule and bullying because of gender-based conditioning prevalent in society.
Expose children to non-stereotypical books and movies: Instead of reading traditional fairy tales which relate to how a princess is rescued by a brave prince, expose your child to folktales with strong female characters.
Advocate for gender equality Jayneen Sanders uses her picture storybook No difference Between Us to teach children about respectful relationships, choice, self-esteem, empathy, and tolerance. The book's protagonists are twins. Jess is a girl and Ben is a boy, but in all the major life scenarios, there is no difference between them. The cover of the book shows both children caring for dolls. The author seeks to convey the message that we are all human - everyone has hopes and dreams. Our gender is irrelevant.
Parents need to watch out for gender-biased content on the internet or television - movies, TV shows, advertisements, video games, and music. If they spot the portrayal of gender stereotypes (such as women doing housework and men doing physical labor and outside jobs) they should explain to their child that these are outdated perceptions.
Educate your child on gender: At an appropriate age, explain to your child the difference between sex and gender. By the age of three, a child's core gender identity (the gender he identifies with) is usually developed. While there may be biological reasons for a child's gender identity, experts believe it is largely determined by environmental factors, particularly the way parents and peers treat children. As parents, ensure that gender identity is something your child chooses and is comfortable with, not something you force on the child based on social norms.
ParentCircle spoke to Dr Bittu Rajaraman, a faculty member at the Centre for Studies in Gender and Sexuality, Ashoka University. Here is what she had to say:
Ideally, one should not assign a gender to children but refer to their gender neutrally until they grow older and decide for themselves what their gender identity is. Teach your child that the personal choices of what to play with, what to study, what to wear, and whom to befriend, are free choices. They should not be dictated by regressive societal constraints that limit the full potential of children in the name of gender, caste, or any other divisive construct. This applies to both their own choices as well as to others in their peer group. Parents need to teach children to never belittle other children, and to stand up against friends being bullied in any way. And finally, one has to learn to listen to one's children and create a supportive environment in which they can share their feelings with their family.
Get them thinking: Ask your six-year-old this riddle taken from the UNESCO manual: Deepak and his son Arjun are on their way to the market when they have a serious accident. Deepak is instantly killed while his son, injured and unconscious, is rushed to the nearest hospital. The surgeon on duty comes into the operating room to treat Arjun and becomes very upset. The surgeon says: "I cannot operate on this child. He is my son."
How is this possible? It might not be obvious to your child that the surgeon could be Arjun's mother. But it will get her thinking that she too could become a surgeon one day. Similarly, you could play games with your young child where there is a gender role reversal.
Don't discriminate: Parents should not have different rules for their sons and daughters. And they should be prepared to take on friends and family members who seek to reinforce regressive ideas.
Tata Tea has released short, thought-provoking videos in a campaign to arouse gender sensitivity. One video shows a mother not allowing her daughter to play badminton with her brother, asking her to help her in the kitchen instead. When a boy finds that the rules meant for his sister do not apply to him, he believes that there's a lot he can get away with that girls cannot. The seeds of gender discrimination are sown at home.
See video 1 below
Another video shows a race for young children where a girl emerges as the winner. The father of one of the boy participants asks his son: "You lost to a girl?" His son looks bewildered. The videos end with the message: "Inequality gets learned. Equality needs teaching."
See video 2 below
Bust gender stereotypes at home: Reject the idea of gender-specific chores. Apart from assigning tasks equally between children, make it clear that there is nothing strange if a boy helps out in the kitchen or a girl fixes a light bulb. Some girls and women excel in traditionally male domains. Some boys and men are inclined toward activities traditionally reserved for women. Rigid definitions of work meant for men and women are unnecessary and unnatural. Tell your child (and, if you are a father, show her by caring for her little sibling) that men can take care of babies too.
Children should be given the freedom to express themselves and be who they want to be. Parents should ensure that their children are free to choose colors, clothes, toys, and friends even when society tells them that some things are meant for boys and others for girls. Most importantly, children follow what they see at home. That's why it is important for parents to be sensitive around children when it comes to defining gender roles. As I'm an only child, my mother lives with us. My two teenage daughters have grown up believing that it is not just a man's responsibility to look after elderly parents. But it is also important to make children aware of the gender discrimination prevalent in society - how the male child usually gets more liberties and faces fewer expectations in terms of household work. This will help them find friends and partners who do not have such a bias- Anindita Mehta, scientist, and mother of two teenage daughters
Watch what you say: Parents shouldn't allow statements and questions such as these to slip out: "Don't walk like a girl" or "Why are you dressed like a tomboy?" They should also make it a point to use gender-neutral knowledge wherever it is called for. For instance, they could say firefighters (not firemen) and ballet dancers (not ballerinas) to make children realize that professions are not gender-specific. According to American writer Rebecca Asher, parents constantly interact with children in a gendered way without being aware of it. It may be in a look or touch indicating approval or disapproval, or the tone of the conversation. She calls this "innocent socialisation".
Encourage children to pursue careers and activities they like: There is still a lingering perception that STEM- (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) related careers are more for boys. There is no proven reason why women cannot make good engineers. Similarly, men can turn out to be successful chefs and fashion designers.
American developmental psychologist Howard Gardner is best known for his theory of multiple intelligences. According to his theory, every child has different types of intelligence and talents. A boy may be gifted with musical intelligence while a girl may have well-developed logical-mathematical intelligence. It is up to parents to give them the opportunities to hone their talents. For this, parents must expose children to a variety of activities irrespective of their gender.
Allow your children to express emotions: A boy has as much right to cry as a girl have if he is upset, and a girl may want to shout and fight with someone to vent her anger. Children should be allowed to express themselves free of gender conditioning. If you tell a boy not to cry like a girl, you are conveying the distorted value judgment that crying is feminine behavior and that it is inappropriate for a boy.
Encourage children to play with kids of the opposite sex: If your child mostly plays with kids of the same sex, he loses the opportunity to understand and become familiar with those of the opposite sex. This hampers the development of gender sensitivity. Encourage inclusive play and do not restrict your child on what kind of games or sport he should take up.
Treat your partner with respect and love: The way their parents treat each other has a deep impact on children. You may have heard this statement made by men quite often: "My wife does not work." This negates all the work a homemaker does to care for the home and family. Children who witness their mothers becoming victims of domestic violence or dowry harassment get a warped perception of the power equation between the two genders. Parents have to ensure that their children do not become either victims or perpetrators of gender violence. When they are old enough to understand, talk to them about sexism and the gender inequality that exists in society.
Teach children to embrace diversity: Teach your kids not to fear differences but instead accept others in a non-judgmental manner. Instill respect in your child for all genders (gender need not be binary). For instance, your child should never be tempted to bully an 'effeminate' child at school or at play.
Gender stereotypes affect self-image and self-esteem and limit job expectations and life choices. In families where women and men share leadership roles and mutual respect, children are raised to see all as equals - deserving of respect and equal opportunities. Make your family one of those.
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