Do you know that even children can suffer from problems of the thyroid gland? Read on to understand the symptoms and treatment measures for diseases of the thyroid gland.
By Dr S Ramkumar
The thyroid gland is an important endocrine organ in our body. For your child’s body to function properly, the thyroid gland needs to secrete the right amount of hormones into the bloodstream. But, when the thyroid gland begins to release higher or lower level of hormones, we begin to suffer from effects of thyroid gland malfunction. This can happen to anyone, irrespective of the age of the individual.
The thyroid gland is a small, butterfly-shaped gland located in the anterior part of the neck. It produces the hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).
These hormones have a major impact on the following functions:
The secretion of these hormones is controlled by the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), which is produced by the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is located at the base of the brain and produces hormones which control the other glands.
In general, the endocrine disorders in children are caused by either too high or too low level of hormones. Similarly, the diseases of the thyroid can be due to:
All the three diseases can occur in children, the most common being hypothyroidism.
A newborn with hypothyroidism has jaundice, feeds poorly, is lethargic, has increased sleepiness and constipation at birth. Later in childhood, this child displays poor memory, poor growth, low weight gain, slowness in activities and increased sleepiness.
Hypothyroidism can also delay the onset of menses. Any child with poor academic performance, short stature, and delay in onset of menses or poor mental development should be evaluated with thyroid function tests, which include T4 and TSH.
Hyperthyroidism occurs due to increased production and release of thyroid hormones (also called Graves’ disease). Although Graves’ disease is uncommon in children, it leads to behavioural problems, emotional problems, declining school performance, and occasionally, loss of weight and anxiety.
Goitre is commonly seen in the adolescent age group, around the time of puberty. Any localised swelling of the thyroid (nodule) should be imaged with a thyroid ultrasound scan and, if needed, a needle aspiration should be done to rule out cancer.
Hypothyroidism or low level of thyroid hormones can occur due to a primary problem in the thyroid or a secondary problem in the pituitary.
Hypothyroidism is often referred to as an ‘underactive thyroid gland’. This can occur due to acquired or genetic reasons. The acquired causes are autoimmune conditions (where the body produces antibodies that destroy its own thyroid cells), iodine deficiency in the diet, radiation and surgery.
Globally, one in 4,000 babies is affected with hypothyroidism from birth. In India, the incidence is higher and stands at one in 2,800. The reasons for this are the absence of thyroid gland or a defect in the enzymes involved in thyroid hormone production.
Thyroid disorders are more common in girls. In India, the prevalence of goitre in school-going children varies from 8 per cent to 21 per cent. In another study of 6,283 school girls, 1,810 had goitre and 58 had autoimmune thyroid disease.
Congenital hypothyroidism, autoimmune hypothyroidism and Graves' disease cannot be prevented. If hypothyroidism is not diagnosed and treated, children can have mental retardation and growth failure.
Hypothyroidism was a common occurrence on account of iodine deficiency four decades ago. Now, with universal salt iodisation, the problem is rarely seen.
All newborn babies should undergo thyroid testing as part of a neonatal screening to identify congenital hypothyroidism. Although we cannot prevent thyroid abnormalities, early detection and treatment by a paediatric endocrinologist can help such babies have normal brain development. Smoking increases the risk for thyroid disease, particularly autoimmune hypothyroidism. Healthy living is an important part of recovery from thyroid conditions.
Hypothyroidism is diagnosed through a blood test to identify free T4 and TSH. A single daily tablet of Thyroxin taken orally in the early morning hours on an empty stomach helps manage the condition. Nothing should be consumed for 30 minutes after this except water. Your endocrinologist will periodically monitor the response with a blood test for TSH every 6 to 12 weeks. Taking too much of the thyroid hormone will speed up metabolism and can cause rapid or irregular heart rate and loss of calcium from the bone. However, excess thyroid hormone levels are unlikely to occur when the treatment is carefully prescribed and monitored.
Treatment of congenital hypothyroidism should begin soon after birth. In most cases, your child will need to take thyroid hormone tablets daily, throughout life.
Graves’ disease is diagnosed by the findings of high free T3, high free T4 and low TSH, through blood tests. A thyroid scan using nuclear imaging can confirm the problem. Anti-thyroid drugs are used for treatment, and these bring down the production to normal levels. Radioiodine therapy which is available in select centres across India is used on children after they cross 10 years of age, and if there is no response to anti-thyroid drugs. Surgical removal of thyroid is another option. However, this brings about the need to take Thyroxin supplements for life.
The author, Dr S Ramkumar is a consultant diabetologist and endocrinologist at Apollo Hospitals, Chennai.
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